Introduction: bordering securities in a global world
This story, from unauthorised surveillance, to the Snowden revelations, to the action against the Guardian and the detention of Miranda, is a telling example of how the governing of borders and security has become increasingly intertwined in a global world of digital media and terror discourses. Unauthorised surveillance and the close cooperation between security agencies, such as the NSA and the GCHQ (among others), are both examples of the outsourcing of borders in terms of increased surveillance of activities across national borders in the name of cyber security. According to Guardian reporting (Friday 21 June 2013), the GCHQ started ‘Mastering the Internet Programme’ in 2007 (later referred to as ‘Tempura’ and similar to the NSA’s ‘Upstream’). This involved plugging into the cables that
FDUU\LQWHUQHWWUDI¿FLQWRDQGRXWRIWKHFRXQWU\DQGJDUQHULQJPDWHULDOLQDSURFHVV repeatedly referred to as SSE – thought to stand for ‘special source exploitation’. Through such governing of cyber security, the GCHQ and branches of the Home 2I¿FH KDYH WKXV EHHQ DEOH WR UHVSRQG WR UHDO RU LPDJLQHG IHDUV RI LQWHUQDO DQG external threats from unknown sources across domestic borders.