A Brief Temporal Gradient of Retrograde Amnesia Independent of Situational Change
Significant amounts of retrograde amnesia for the memory of the punishment was shown when electroconvulsive shock (ECS) was administered up to and including 30 seconds after the punishment but not at 60 seconds. Studies have shown that ECS given shortly after a learning experience can interfere with the learning. This interference typically has been interpreted as a disruption of a consolidation of the memory trace. The chapter provides information on the effects of the interval between the learning experience and ECS. Durations of grid shock (GS) and ECS, as well as time intervals between GS and ECS, were automatically triggered and timed by a system of relays and timers. Actual intensities of GS and ECS were monitored on milliammeters. The effects of the GS-ECS interval were studied with eight experimental groups with 0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, 7.5, 15.0, 30.0, and 60.0 seconds separating presentation of GS and ECS.