This chapter argues that the time has come to begin a reconsideration of the current conventional wisdom regarding the history and nature of anthropology. It presents and discusses three widely accepted criticisms of pre-1970s anthropology that have become part of the standard representation of people past. The representation of anthropology's history and nature has become a major element in much of the recent theoretical literature and it is time to subject these constructions to the same critical scrutiny. Martin Bernal's second volume violates the primary Boasian principle that "race, language, and culture" must each be analyzed in its own right, that they can vary independently, that evidence of the presence of an element from one realm is no proof of the existence of those from others. The chapter discusses the three claims can be found in concise and explicit form in an article by Roger M. Keesing, published in a volume with contributions from many distinguished anthropologists.