This chapter analyzes the amount of direct care that the children receive from their fathers vs. their grandmothers, and other categories of kin, to assess their relative importance. The Hadza are hunter-gatherers who live in a savanna-woodland habitat near Lake Eyasi in northern Tanzania. Hadza women take nurslings with them when they go foraging but leave toddlers in camp. Hadza children are allowed to do as they like most of the time. During their "terrible twos" children throw tantrums and pickup sticks and hit adults, who do little more than fend off the blows and laugh. Hadza children require considerable direct care only during their first two or three years of life. Hadza grandmothers, especially maternal grandmothers, provide considerable direct care and provisioning. The Hadza say they have no preference for one sex over the other in children and this is reflected in the behavior of mothers if not the behavior of fathers.