The Need for a Storage Revolution for a Green Energy Economy
The green electrical energy greatly depends on the capability to store that electricity in a cheap and efficient way, because the generation of electricity from renewable and sustainable sources is intermittent. Battery technology has been used to store electrical energy chemically for more than 160 years. Batteries store more energy per unit volume and weight, and they must be capable of being cycled for thousands of times. The chapter explores the three major sections based on the scale of energy storage. The sections include small-scale energy storage, medium-scale energy storage, and large-scale energy storage. The chapter explores current energy storage technologies that are already in the market, as well as those now being developed in research laboratories. It assesses in detail their technical capability and development for a wide range of applications, from electric vehicles to wholesale energy services. Hybrid electric vehicles offer improved fuel economy and lower emissions per car because the rate of gasoline consumption is reduced by about 30 percent.