Sustainable Transport: Managing Auto Dependence through Travel-Time Budgets
This chapter looks at something more fundamental: how cities need to change so that sustainable transport becomes viable and effective. Sustainable transport needs support from land-use planning; it needs more of the transit city and walking city to be made part of the automobile city. This will be the only way to realize the Marchetti travel-time budget in heavily car-dependent areas. The need for a polycentric city has emerged as the solution to reducing car dependence and creating a new city form that enables people to keep within the Marchetti travel-time budget and create a more sustainable transport system. Most citizens who experience car dependence, and have long commutes stuck in traffic, can understand the phenomenon, since they directly feel and bear its economic, social, and environmental consequences. The growth in transit was always seen by transport planners as a small part of the transport task, and car use growth would continue unabated.