Migrant integration in China’s urban villages: a case study of Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou
China is becoming a country of migrants. Millions of rural migrants have resettled in large coastal cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou in the last three decades. According to the ofﬁ cial statistical report, the number of migrants dramatically enlarged to 211 million in 2009 from 6.57 million in 1982 (Editorial 2010 ). A large proportion of rural migrants are now counted as urban people in the national survey. Accordingly, for the ﬁ rst time in China’s history, the number of the urban population exceeded that of the rural population in 2011.