In the latter part of the 19th century, the term “citizen” was ﬁ rst introduced to China, but it was known only to a handful of polymaths who had learned about Western concepts. Thanks to the promotional eff orts of some insightful scholars like Yan Fu and Liang Qichao, civic education experienced a boom during the 1920s and 1930s. Both churches and the intelligentsia made great eff orts to advocate civic education. Afterwards, civic education deteriorated as a result of ideological control by the Nanjing National Government. During the 100 years prior to 1949, civic education in China had gone through various processes: enlightenment, which featured reform of national character and rescue of the nation; exploration of civic education, which focused on civic awareness and civic moral education; the May Fourth Movement (also known as the New Culture Movement), which featured the pursuit of individual emancipation, democracy, and human rights; Kuomintang party-oriented education implemented by the National Government in place of civic education; and the decline of the reform of national character.