Religion was not a suﬃcient condition for the Holocaust, but it was a necessary one. What happened at Auschwitz is inconceivable without beliefs about God ﬁrst held by Jews and then by Christians. Holocaust and genocide scholars have explored the similarities and diﬀerences between the Holocaust and other genocides. Although the ﬁeld of comparative genocide does not often make the point, one aspect of the Holocaust that is qualitatively diﬀerent from all other programs of extermination and mass destruction in the modern period can be stated as follows: No example of mass murder other than the Holocaust has raised so directly or so insistently the question of whether it was an expression of Heilsgeschichte, that is, God’s providential involvement in history. More than any other disaster in modern times, the Holocaust resonates and collides with the religio-mythic traditions of biblical religion, the dominant religious tradition of western civilization.