Resourcefulness in Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren
Resourcefulness, as conceptualized here, grew out of the work of Rosenbaum (1980), who initially proposed that learned resourcefulness reﬂected verbal and non-verbal cognitive skills. These skills, which focus on self-control, include
self-instructions to manage emotional and physiological responses to stress, problem-solving, delay of gratiﬁcation, and belief that one can manage internal stimuli (Zauszniewski, 1995, p. 16). Zauszniewski’s continued work (Zauszniewski, 2006) in the area of resourcefulness led to dropping the label of “learned” from the concept name, even though there is a learned component to resourcefulness as a skill. Secondly, a growing understanding of the value and limits of resourcefulness as originally conceptualized led to an expanded conceptualization of “resourcefulness,” to include both personal resourcefulness, as described in Rosenbaum’s original 1980 conceptualization, and social resourcefulness, to recognize the appropriateness and importance of seeking outside help when needed.