Bias, Misconduct, and Integrity in Scientific Research
Integrity in science involves adherence to ethical norms for the conduct of research. Integrity is essential to good scientific research, as it plays a key role in collaboration, peer review, publication, confirmation, mentoring and education, and data acquisition, analysis, and management. Integrity helps scientists to secure the public’s trust and support, and is important in interactions with the public, such as communicating with the media and providing expert testimony in legal proceedings on government advisory committees. Integrity is also indispensable in research involving human subjects or animals. Some of science’s ethical norms include honesty, openness, carefulness, objectivity, fair sharing of credit, social responsibility, and respect for students, peers, and research subjects (Shamoo and Resnik 2009).