The Nya¯ya Dars´ana
The Nya¯ya school most likely had its origin in its attempt to formulate canons of argument for use in debates, which pervaded the Indian philosophical scene for a long time. The Nya¯ya derives its name from “nya¯ya,” meaning the rules of logical thinking and the means of determining the right thing. Thus, originally indicated as a system of logic, laying down the rules of logical argumentation, Nya¯ya, also known as “a¯nvı¯ks. ikı¯,” blossomed into a systematic school and found its legitimate place among the six Vedic systems of philosophy. It found a close ally in the Vais´es.ika school. The Naiya¯yikas accept the ontology of the Vais´es.ika school, and given that these two schools are closely allied in their realistic ontology, they are generally studied together forming a conjoint system called Nya¯ya-Vais´es.ika.