Modern Indian Thought
The classical philosophical systems had reached their high point by the time the British rule in India began. The Sanskrit pundits continued to instruct students in the classical systems, and no new major innovation seemed to be in the offing. These Sanskrit scholars applied themselves to the school of Navya-Nya¯ya (new logic); outstanding scholars devoted themselves to teaching and writing about this school. However, no major works were published, although it does seem that a whole lot of “private papers,” known as “krod. apatra” continued to accumulate.1 Students used them to defend their own positions and criticize their opponents. Lineage of such students traced back their ancestry to great pandits. How far new philosophical innovations were made, is hard to say.