Globalisation, sport policy and China
Regarding the social aspect, this aspect is difficult to define since Houlihan calls it ‘social’ but very often is referring to a broader set of cultural and ideological values. For Houlihan, what he refers to as the ‘social’ aspect covers the broad cultural values of a society; thus, social ideology is not just the ideology of political parties and other formal groups but rather reflects the dominant ideas within a society and its everyday values. According to this, we modify the denotation of the term – ‘social’ – in Houlihan’s framework to refer both to the cultural values and everyday ideology of the population. In addition, Houlihan (1994: 370) argues that total reach would imply a penetration of all three cultural flows, while partial reach would suggest that the impact of globalisation could be confined to one or two flows. The concept of depth of reach is summarised with examples in Table 12.1. Regarding the three types of response to reach, these are summarised with examples in Table 12.2.