Failure in learning I Handicaps in learning
This paper gives a comprehensive survey of the field of learning handicap. It deals with specific and general disabilities, with causative factors and with the application of research findings in practice. A very important suggestion is that children with learning difficulties have much greater potential than has usually been expected of them.
Success and failure in learning are relative things. In a professional family a child who does not secure a university place may be regarded as dull; in another milieu the adolescent who can stumble haltingly through the sports page of the newspaper may be considered the bright one. Furthermore, terms such as dull, backward, subnormal, retarded - all frequently used in this field - have none of them a precise scientific meaning. In any particular study or discussion where precision is needed the terms have to be defined anew. For their meanings are affected not just by dictionary definition, but also by the population being studied, the point in time and tIle skill under consideration.