Assessment, certification and the needs of young people: from badges of failure towards signs of success
The national studies were carried out during 1987-8 in four member states (France, Germany, Ireland and the United Kingdom). These studies considered practices in assessment and certification as they affect less successful pupils during secondary schooling and examined new initiatives in assessment which seek to remotivate pupils and provide opportunities for them to demonstrate and record their achievements. For the United Kingdom, two separate reports were prepared on Scotland, and England and Wales, since each has its own education system, and both have been undergoing change. The German report concentrated on developments in
two of the Länder — Northrine-Westphalia and Bavaria. The conference took place in England, at Brighton, in May 1988, and was attended by representatives of eleven member states and of the Commission.