chapter
8 Pages

rules-often

A pervasive institutional goal of schooling, however naturalized and thus invisible, is the Foucaudian (1977) one of inspecting and ranking students (see Foucault's 1977 discussion of the "normalizing gaze.") Hence, the recurrent extra-and intrauniversity concern about grade inflation. Our research (Freedman, 1987b; Freedman et al., 1994)has shown us the degree to which students appreciate this reality: They treat a writing episode as complete only once they have received the grade (whether they actually pick up the piece of writing from the teacher or not) and when asked about teachers' comments on their pieces, students often remember only the grade (Freedman, 1987b).