chapter  11
21 Pages

The Science Culture Index (SCI): Construction and Validation

WithRAJESH SHUKLA, MARTIN W. BAUER

Science performance indicators have come a long way since early discussions of a ‘science of science’ (Price, 1963) and the launch of journals like Scientometrics in the late 1950s. Figures on R&D expenditure, manpower, patents, and high-tech balance of payments have become routine national statistics in many countries; numbers of publications and citations are widely used to evaluate research institutions and teams of researchers.