chapter  3
16 Pages

The Industrial Revolution (1700–1850)

The Industrial Revolution, which took place in Britain between 1700 and 1850, brought dramatic changes into the lives of children, families, cities, and entire nations. The problems engendered by the Industrial Revolution were the result of the confluence of theory and the practical realities of living in the time period following the Napoleanic Wars and the French Revolution. Prior to 1700, families produced the goods they needed at home using a domestic system of manufacture. Several innovations, such as the opening of the coke furnaces to smelt iron ore in 1709, and the silk factory in Derby in 1719, led to the employment of women and children as cheap labor in industry. Inventions such as the flying shuttle, the roller spinner, and the spinning jenny revolutionized the textile industry, causing many cotton factories to be built.2