Post–Industrial Revolution (1860–1980)
The inhumane conditions of child life continued into the post-industrial age, particularly for the children of working-class families. The end of the nineteenth century and the first third of the twentieth century was a period in which the standard of living in most working-class families in England declined. The Web site for the City of Bradford, England, states that the Luddites, hand weavers from Yorkshire, smashed or burned power machinery to show their opposition to industrialization. In spite of this, the pace of the Industrial Revolution continued to quicken. By 1841, there were over one hundred mills in the city of Bradford and the surrounding borough. Margaret McMillan spent eight years learning about the deplorable housing and unsanitary conditions of children there. This information was later utilized in assisting both the children of Bradford and the children of the Deptford slum section of London.