chapter  8
9 Pages

Theories of Motivation Maggie Ing

Motivation is an ambiguous word, referring to both an inner drive and a push from without. Children are 'motivated' or we 'motivate' children. This double meaning is reflected in theories of motivation, which can roughly be divided into those which emphasize external stimuli, and those which emphasize internal processes. This categorization is not completely clear-cut; most theories have a biological basis, and most pay some attention to the interaction of inner states and external circumstances. The differences are of emphasis and elaboration. But in their application to education, there is a real difference between the reinforcement model and the horticultural model; Skinner and Dewey make for very different classroom practice.