This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the concepts covered in the preceding chapters of this book. The book presents some common themes and observations on the environmental changes, responses, outcomes, moderating factors, and guidelines. It looks at how changes in the global segment, the technological segment, the legal segment, and the demographic segment of the business environment have changed and affected HRM. The book also looks at the changes in the business environment and how they affected organizations and HRM. It discusses the number of environmental changes can be identified that have dramatically affected the firm and its workforce. The book argues that the technological advancements affect employee communication, employee training, how organizations are structured, how work is organized, skills needed, outsourcing decisions, benefit costs, and post-catastrophe capabilities. The book discusses how some internal environmental factors can affect these outcomes. It shows that environmental changes have created complex and exciting challenges for firms in the area of HR.