Cultural fl ows: Japan and East Asia
In the latter decades of the twentieth century, the dramatic development of communication technologies and the concurrent emergence of global media corporations have facilitated the transnational circulation of information, images, and texts on a global scale. Various (national) media markets have been penetrated and integrated by powerful missionaries of global consumer culture such as News Corporation, Disney, and Sony. However, cultural globalization does not just mean the worldwide spread of identical cultural products of Western (mostly American) origin through these media conglomerates. What has also become noticeable is the development of new patterns of regional media circulation and consumption, especially among non-Western countries. Cultural globalization has activated intra-regional cultural fl ows, with growing interaction and collaboration among local and transnational cultural industries.