Rape presents a constant, all-pervasive threat; it can happen to a woman anywhere, at any time: on a date, at a family reunion, even in a marriage. Rape is not the victimization of all women by all men; rape is a heinous crime committed by violent individuals against innocent victims. The grisly history of lynching in the American South had been closely linked to accusations, many of them false, of rape by black men against white women. American rape laws derive from English law, which has had a long and unwavering position on rape. Sanctions against rape in the American military go back as far as colonial times. Communities plagued by a series of rapes often "circle the wagons," by demanding publicity from the local media, protection from the law enforcement authorities, and results from local politicians. Rape causes fear and outrage in communities where it occurs.