Systemic Reform: Research, Vision, and Politics
Combining the above definitions provides a basic definition of systemic reform, that is, to make better an entire system by removing faults and defects. Although that basic definition applies to systemic reform of science education, it does not define what is a “system” in educational reform, nor does it address the issue of the time required for systemic reform. This chapter addresses that definition by limiting its discussion of systemic reform to large-scale reforms that affect multiple parts of the education system. In addition, it discusses reform in terms of time, that is, long-term reforms. Obviously these two parameters limit the contents of the chapter by eliminating many regional or local reforms, both in the United States and internationally.1 But it can be argued that such limitations are necessary to both focus the discussion and to include a historical perspective.