Dementia with Lewy bodies
Description of the syndrome, diagnostic criteria, and diagnostic methods Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly, followed closely by cerebrovascular disease (Joachim, Morris, & Selkoe, 1988; Kuller et al., 2003; White et al., 2002). However, much attention has focused recently on a newly rediscovered dementia syndrome that does not involve the pathological processes related to Alzheimer’s disease and is referred to as Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). The most common symptomatology associated with DLB is the presence of fl uctuating cognition (FC) with pronounced variations in alertness, visual hallucinations, and extrapyramidal signs (EPS; McKeith et al., 1996). Other associated features are auditory/olfactory hallucinations, delusions, hypersomnia, frequent falls, syncope, transient loss of consciousness, neuroleptic sensitivity (McKeith et al., 1996), major depression (Klatka, Louis, & Schiffer, 1996), rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (Ferman et al., 1999), an abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG; Briel et al., 1999), and urinary incontinence (Del-Ser, Munoz, & Hachinski, 1996).