Persian Gulf and other “deployment” syndromes
Following the fi rst Persian Gulf confl ict in 1990-1991, veterans returned with a number of general medical, neurobehavioral, and psychiatric symptoms that often could not be readily explained. A controversial literature emerged based upon studies of these veterans, and it appears that there is no single explanation for the occurrence of these symptoms. Various tropical disease entities, biological warfare, exposure to oil clouds, and numerous other potential causes have been investigated. The appearance of Persian Gulf syndrome stimulated an interest in the more general study of the consequences of military deployment area and resulting health diffi culties. Vietnam was a relatively recent deployment area and the Balkans and Afghanistan are recently the major ones in addition to the Persian Gulf. Clinical and experimental studies regarding these disorders are reviewed here.