chapter  10
18 Pages

Respiratory disorders and neuropsychological dysfunction

ByKevin S. Krug, Antonio E. Puente

SDB, defi ned as either a partial or full airway interruption leading to hypoxia (e.g., diminished oxygen supply to tissue), hypercarbia (e.g., abnormal cellular pH and increased carbon dioxide levels in the blood), and sleep fragmentation, refers to a general category of sleep respiratory disorders. Common disorders under this general heading include obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and upper airway resistance syndrome. Other physical complaints associated with SDB are hyperpnea (e.g., breathing that is deeper and more rapid than normal), daytime drowsiness, failure to thrive, and poor cardiovascular function (Guilleminault & Robinson, 1997; Owens, 1990; Partinen & Guilleminault, 1990; Perkin, Downey, & MacQuarrie, 1999; Sanner et al., 2000) SDB has also been linked to increases in depression and anxiety (Aikens, CaruanaMontaldo, Vanable, Tadimeti, & Mendelson, 1999; Aikens & Mendelson, 1999).