Motivational Role of Self-Efﬁcacy Beliefs in Self-Regulated Learning
In 1878, philosopher Charles Peirce contended that the sole function of human thought is to produce the beliefs that individuals come to hold about themselves and about their world. These beliefs become rules of action that determine both what people will do and the subsequent thoughts that will generate subsequent beliefs. A century later, psychologist Albert Bandura (1977) theorized that the beliefs that people come to hold about their capabilities and about the outcomes of their efforts powerfully inﬂuence not only the ways in which they will behave but also the cognitive and affective processes that accompany their functioning. For Bandura, as for the poet Virgil, people who are able are typically those who BELIEVE they are able.