Promoting Self-Regulated Learning A Motivational Analysis
Learning can be deﬁned as a complex cognitive, motivational, and hence emotional process. The regulation of learning can therefore refer to each of these three components separately or to the molar learning activity. The distinction between metacognitive, metamotivational and metaemotional processes (Boekaerts, Pintrich, & Zeidner, 2000) refers to conscious or implicit regulatory cognitive processes that are intended and used (or not) to control these three components of academic learning and achieving. Self-regulated (or self-regulating) learners are then students who are able to control these different cognitive-motivational processes to facilitate their own learning process and who are thus likely to perceive themselves at the helm or as the masters of their own learning process (Zimmerman & Schunk, 2001). Self-regulating learners experience themselves as origins, as agents and not as pawns (deCharms, 1968, 1984).