Self-Regulation of Achievement Goal Pursuit
The process of self-regulated learning (Zimmerman, 1989) is characterized by students taking a proactive approach to their own education through the utilization of knowledge and the strategic oversight and adjustment of their affect, cognition, and behavior in education-relevant settings. Achievement goal pursuit (Dweck, 1986; Elliot, 1997; Nicholls, 1984) represents an important aspect of self-regulation as goals provide a clear picture of the situation-speciﬁc strategies that students plan to use as well as the outcomes they seek to attain or avoid. Although the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation and the social-cognitive approach to self-regulation represent two diverse traditions of educational research, the process of achievement goal pursuit is analogous to the goal-setting and strategic planning processes described in the self-regulation literature (Zimmerman, 1998). In addition, external factors such as teacher behaviors and classroom characteristics have been found to have effects on both the development of selfregulated learning (Schunk, 1998; Schunk & Zimmerman, 1997; Zimmerman, 1989) and the adoption of achievement goals (Ames & Archer, 1988; Church, Elliot, & Gable, 2001; Roeser, Midgley, & Urdan, 1996; Urdan & Turner, 2005). We believe that an integration of the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation and the social-cognitive model of self-regulation would beneﬁt both of these inﬂuential traditions. A broad integration of these traditions is beyond the scope of this or any single chapter; our aim here is much more modest. Speciﬁcally, we focus on incorporating an important feature of the social-cognitive model of self-regulation-the cyclical
nature of achievement striving-into the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation.