Policing styles, oﬃcer gender and decision making
Gender shapes policing in multiple ways. As actors, police oﬃcers are aﬀected by many variables in determining their actions – most notable among these is the situational circumstance in which they ﬁnd themselves – but they may also be aﬀected by their own personal beliefs, attitudes, and gender (Martin, 1979; Miller, 1999; Worden, 1993). Individual diﬀerences between oﬃcers, along with the department culture in which the oﬃcers work, help to deﬁne each police oﬃcer’s style of policing. In turn, these operational styles (sometimes referred to as the police oﬃcer’s “working personality”) drive the types of decisions made by oﬃcers in the course of their day-to-day work (Muir, 1977; Skolnick, 1994; Wilson, 1968).