Cognitive models of auditory hallucinations
S. J. Rachman pointed out that a sense of mental pollution, or cognitive dissonance, occurs when individuals involuntarily think repugnant thoughts – unacceptable violent, sexual or blasphemous thoughts. There is widespread consensus that auditory hallucinations arise from misattributed cognitions – cognitive events that are not recognised by the individual as being generated internally, and instead are attributed to external sources. It is usual for people – psychologists as well as others – to comment that auditory hallucinations are "common and distressing psychotic phenomena''. The dominant psychological formulations of auditory hallucinations are based on the hypothesis that individuals are mistaking their own internal, private cognitions for external events. Bentall and Slade found that hallucinating individuals were more likely to fail in correctly identifying the source of a signal than those not hallucinating. Intrusive thoughts are often accompanied by distress and they interrupt ongoing mental activity.