Principles and Perspective Taking
Advanced Morality as Principled Morality Morality is in large part a matter of perception, intuition, emotion, and habit for children, adolescents, and adults at all developmental
levels (Arnold, 2000; Cushman, Young, & Hauser, 2006; Gibbs, 2010; Graham, Haidt, & Nosek, 2009; Haidt, 2001; Haidt & Graham, 2007; Hoffman, 2000; Krebs & Denton, 2005; Lapsley, 1996; Narvaez, 2010; Nucci, 2001, 2009; Pizarro & Bloom, 2003; Reed, 2009; Rest, 1983, 1984; Rest, Narvaez, Bebeau, & Thoma, 1999; Walker, 2000; Walker & Hennig, 1997). Our dispositions, reactions, and behavior, moreover, accommodate to changing environments over the course of our lives. Such changes are not necessarily developmental, however, even though they extend over a period of time. Developmental changes are also self-regulated, qualitative, and progressive. Moral development, then, means progress toward more advanced forms of morality. Theorists of moral development acknowledge, to varying degrees, the role of multiple factors and changing circumstances in moral functioning but focus, appropriately, on moral progress and thus on advanced forms of morality.