Identity as a Theory of Oneself
Marcia’s extension of Erikson’s work on identity formation (see Chapter 9) transformed a rather diffuse psychoanalytic concept into a fruitful basis for empirical research. The Marcia framework and associated research continue to be held in high regard (Berzonsky & Adams, 1999; Kroger, 2003; Kroger & Marcia, in press; Waterman, 1999). Since the 1980s, however, there has been increasing concern among adolescent identity theorists that Marcia’s identity statuses do not fully encompass Erikson’s concept of identity, much less the diverse uses of that concept in theoretical and popular discourse (Bosma & Kunnen, 2001; Grotevant, 1998; Kunnen & Bosma, 2003; Meeus, Iedema, Helsen, & Vollebergh, 1999; Schwartz, 2001; van Hoof, 1999a, 1999b). Efforts to interpret and expand identity research have generated a variety of proposals about what is, or should be, meant by identity.