chapter  28
17 Pages

Second Language Listening: Presage, Process, Product, and Pedagogy

Listening is perhaps the most essential skill for second/foreign (L2) language learning; it internalizes the rules of language and facilitates the emergence of other language skills (e.g., Dunkel, 1991; Rost, 2002; Vandergrift, 2007). Listening is also a critical part of everyday life; we spend about 45% of our waking hours listening (Lee & Hatesohl, 1993).