Ideology in Second Language Education
Research on ideology has generated a remarkably extensive scholarly literature across the full range of the social sciences. Nowhere has it been more important than in communication and language studies, particularly in critical approaches such as critical discourse analysis (Fairclough, 1995; Hodge & Kress, 1993; van Dijk, 1993a, 1993b; Wodak, 1996). Despite the extensive body of published research, perhaps no concept in language studies is more characterized by confusion, contradiction, competing methodologies, and controversies about fundamental terminology. This chapter begins by summarizing the complex meanings of ideology, and then examines certain aspects of ideology in second language (L2) theories and research methods, teaching practice, and teacher education.