Sociocultural Perspectives on Collaborative Learning: Toward Collaborative Knowledge Creation Kai Hakkarainen (University of Turku), Sami Paavola, Kaiju Kangas, and Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen (University of Helsinki)
INTRODUCTION e term sociocultural approaches to learning is quite widely used. It refers especially to approaches which have been in uenced by L. S. Vygotsky’s (1978) seminal work on understanding human development and learning. Vygotsky and his coworkers’ texts, and later interpretations and developments (e.g., Cole, 1996; Engeström, 1987) have had a great in uence on our understanding of human learning. Although sociocultural approaches are widely adopted, they still challenge many deeply rooted preconceptions of learning and human development. e basic locus of human learning is social interactions, cultural practices, and reciprocal personal and social transformations rather than individuals and individuals’ minds. Within sociocultural approaches the meaning of language and semiotic mediation is o en emphasized as a basis for understanding human activities.