Collaboration Scripts in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning
Information and communication technologies are being used increasingly to support collaboration in formal and informal educational settings. Research on computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL; Stahl, Koschmann, & Suthers, 2006) has investigated methods of employing computer technologies to facilitate collaborative processes in groups of learners, and are typical for the realization of advanced instructional approaches such as inquiry learning (Linn, Lee, Tinker, Husic, & Chiu, 2006) or knowledge building (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 2006). Although research has suggested the great potential for such challenging scenarios to increase the attractiveness and e ectiveness of learning experiences (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1996; Stahl, 2002; Strijbos, Kirschner, & Martens, 2004), many learners have di culty exploiting these opportunities when simply assigned to groups and le to their own devices (e.g., Barron, 2003). is especially applies when learners have little knowledge of how to collaborate e ectively with one another; that is, when they have low-structured internal collaboration scripts (Kollar, Fischer, & Slotta, 2007). In such cases, learners may be supported e ectively by external computer-supported collaboration scripts, which specify, sequence, and distribute learning activities and roles among the learners of a group (Kollar, Fischer, & Hesse, 2006). us, collaboration scripts can be regarded as speci c instances of collaboration-related sca olds that provide interaction-related support rather than content-related support, which makes them a special kind of sca old for collaborative learning. As an example of early face-to-face collaboration script approaches, the scripted cooperation approach (O’Donnell & Dansereau, 1992) rst assigns the task of reading and summarizing a paragraph to one learner, second asks the other learner to review the summary, and third rotates these roles for the next paragraph. Further examples for collaboration scripts that
have been designed to structure face-to-face collaboration are guided reciprocal peer questioning (King, 1998, 2007) and reciprocal teaching (Palincsar & Brown, 1984).