chapter  III
9 Pages

The King and the Great Vassals 2. The Progress of the Monarchy III. THE EMPIRE

By1. Frederick Barbarossa

It was necessary to determine whether the Carolingian conceprion was to continue in force: that is to say, whether the Church, regarded as the whole body of the faithful, and also as a political society, should continue to have at its head two principals, mutually independent, the first governing men’s souls and the second their bodies: or whether, on the contrary, it was the duty of the Pope to dispose of the Imperial crown-whether, in the language of the time, both the spiritual and the temporal sword were his, the Emperor receiving the latter from him as a vassal receives a fief from his sovereign. Only a new war could furnish the reply to this question, for no compromise was possible between the contradictory affirmations of the two adversaries.