chapter
3 Pages

Mark Bradford

Goddam” (1964), in which she sings out against those who advise her to “go slow” in her pursuit

of African American civil rights: “To do things gradually would bring more tragedy.”5 Bradford

turns the title into a tragically ironic pun: Mississippi supposedly has “got a dam,” but the dam

is broken and waves of water consume the community underneath. Bradford, who created this

work in 2006, is clearly referencing the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. The work vividly

illustrates the effect of the hurricane on African American communities in Mississippi, and takes

up Nina Simone’s refrain in his frustration against those who say, “slow down.”