chapter  8
17 Pages


Many scholars and practitioners of instructional deign (ID) now view themselves as constructivists. Their work is influenced by this philosophical orientation which holds that knowledge is individually constructed and often unique to each person. Correspondingly, they believe that the most effective learning occurs when people actively derive meaning from their experiences and the context in which they take place. There are, however, many interpretations and forms of constructivism. Two of the most common are individual constructivism (also known as cognitive constructivism), which emphasizes individual meaning-making, and social constructivism, which highlights the role of social interactions in knowledge development. These two orientations of constructivism have had the most impact on ID.