chapter  9
21 Pages


Theories and models of performance improvement (PI)1 expand the scope of instructional design (ID) by employing the systems approach to address performance opportunities and problems. PI can be applied to improve the performance of organizations, processes, and individuals (Rummler & Brache, 1995). It is concerned with measurable performance and how to structure elements within a results-oriented system (Stolovitch & Keeps, 1999).