Using Offi ce Discipline Referrals and School Exclusion Data to Assess School Discipline
This chapter provides an overview of approaches to assessing problem behavior and school climate with existing discipline data, such as offi ce discipline referrals and school exclusion records. Discipline data are potentially valuable in assessing school violence and school safety, including use for screening, identifying needs for change, and evaluating schoolwide intervention outcomes. However, limitations to their reliability and validity must be considered, including disproportionate use with students from ethnic minority backgrounds. To address these concerns, many schools have taken steps to standardize offi ce disciplinary procedures and enhance the cultural responsiveness of schoolwide discipline systems. This chapter will also provide recommendations for enhancing discipline data for decision making and implementing culturally responsive practices.