A Socio-Ecological Model for Bullying Prevention and Intervention in Early Adolescence
A social-ecological model of the bullying dynamic is described in this chapter. The empirical literature linking individual, peer group, school, family, and community factors in bullying and victimization is reviewed. Data from 5,470 middle school students and 11,447 high school students in Grades 9 through 12 were analyzed to examine social-ecological variables involved in bullying and/or victimization. Specifi cally, we examined the infl uence of individual factors (depression, suicidal ideation, alcohol/drug use, sexual orientation, gender, race, grade); peer factors (peer alcohol, cigarette, drug use, delinquency); school factors (school climate, school belonging); family factors (free/reduced lunch, alternative home placement, risky family environment, parental abuse, positive parenting); and community factors (neighborhood safety, neighborhood connection) on bully perpetration and victimization. The social-ecological model of bullying was supported, illustrating the complex psychological and social picture of youth involved in bullying. Suggestions for positive supports across the social ecology are presented.