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Part 3 Conclusion: Going Global

Between 1946 and 1975, the growth of television around the world created a whole new “world information order,” to quote a phrase that would become globally resonant in the next decade. When Nordenstreng and Varis published their influential UNESCO report in 1974, they noted that until 1962, “The United States alone had more television sets than the rest of the world put together” (1974, 3) in absolute numbers; by percentages Britain, France and Germany lagged only slightly behind. By the mid-70s television had been introduced into virtually every country across the globe, and alongside the programs produced and broadcast by each individual nation appeared an increasing assortment of programs purchased from other national suppliers; the economics as well as the basic visuality of television drove this first wave of televisual globalization far beyond what radio had accomplished. Further, if most (though not all) of radio’s international expansion had been driven by politics-the politics of nation and of empire-television programs spread via the circuits of commodity exchange, along the lines that the cinema had pursued since its earliest days. A similar movement was happening in radio-these chapters have regrettably had to leave out the fascinating but well documented story of popular radio’s transformation in the 1960s and 70s, and its increasing domination by the economics of the global popular music industry (see Barnard 1989; Fornatale and Mills 1980; Wall 2003).