Spectator Rage: An Overview
The influence of customer-to-customer interactions on perceptions of a service encounter has received considerable attention from a number of marketing researchers (Arnould & Price, 1993; Bitner, Booms, & Mohr, 1994; Grove & Fisk, 1997; Harris & Reynolds, 2004; Huang, 2008). When such interactions are of an unpleasant nature, such incidents may assume the form of customer rage (Kalamas, Laroche, & Makdessian, 2008). While customer rage may occur in a wide variety of industries, incidents of rage in spectator sport seemingly receive a great deal of notoriety and scrutiny. However, while customer rage has been examined within a number of disciplines, it has received minimal attention by the marketers of sport (Hunt, Bristol, & Bashaw, 1999). This omission is somewhat perplexing given the importance of live sporting events within the larger sport industry.