chapter  8
25 Pages

Governance in transition: Competing immigrant networks in early nineteenth-century Egypt

ByPASCALE GHAZALEH

Between 1805 and 1848, Egypt was governed by Muhammad ‘Ali, a vice-roy who, although he was careful to obtain Ottoman approval of his rule in the form of regularly renewed firmans, implemented transformations that obtained for this province of the sultanate a considerable measure of autonomy from Istanbul. The wholesale replacement of the ruling class was both a vector and a result of these changes.1