Globalization and Neoliberalism Neoliberal globalization, the most prominent model of globalization, has deeply aected the university in the context of academic capitalism (Slaughter & Leslie, 1997; Torres, in press, 2009b; van Heertum, Olmos, & Torres, 2010). Rhoades and Slaughter have de‹ned academic capitalism as a pattern of increasing pressures on colleges and universities to generate revenue through various partnerships with the private sector. us, academic capitalism is a regime of power that can be seen through the analysis of federal patent and copyright policies, and federal policies and programs that support academic research (Rhoades & Slaughter, 2006). ough this market-based regime of power does not appear initially to concern itself with access, equity, equality, or quality of higher education, as they would seem to fall outside of neoliberalism’s market orientation, critical scholars have suggested that market forces challenge every aspect of higher education. Morrow (2006) argues that neoliberalism has shaped institutions of higher education in essential ways:
e great benefactor of the desacralization of the university as a cultural institution has been the increasing penetration of market forces into higher education and the reorganization of university governance
around ‘playing the game’ of academic capitalism…. In this context the market becomes the Trojan horse for undermining academic autonomy by ostensibly nonideological and noncoercive means based on the interest of the ‘consumers’ of education and research.(pp. xxv-xxvii)
Neoliberalism promotes open markets, free trade, reduction of the public sector, decreased state intervention in the economy, and the deregulation of markets (Chomsky, 2006; Rhoads, Torres, & Brewster, 2005; Stromquist, 2002). Such premises of neoliberal restructuring as the reduction of public spending by cutting programs considered to be wasteful, the sale of state enterprises to private ones, and the enactment of deregulatory mechanisms to prevent state intervention in the business world have been increasingly criticized, particularly a¦er the crash of 2008.