Culturally diverse groups are part of the landscape of all contemporary nationstates. We are now well aware that Japan has been a multi-ethnic and multicultural entity since pre-modern times, as studies have challenged the popular image of homogeneity and advanced what might be called a ‘multicultural Japan’ thesis (see, for example, Lie 2001). In the last two decades in particular, Japanese society has become increasingly diverse, with the arrival of guest workers and various types of foreigner. The aim of this book is to examine the ways in which the rapid diversification of Japanese society has affected the lives of minority children and their peers at school. In the face of this diversification, how are schools providing children with opportunities and preparing them for the adult world?